Sporting has been part of human lifestyle from early days. Although it was done as a way of enjoying and entertaining people, today it has been turned into a full time career by many sportsmen all over the world. Sport has historically played an important role in all societies, be it in the form of physical activity or competitive sport.UNESCO in 1978 described sport and physical education as a “fundamental right for all”, that must be enforced worldwide. Sport has been increasingly recognized and used as a high-impact and low-cost tool in development and peace-building efforts. Sport has a unique power to attract, inspire and mobilize.
Sport plays a significant role in economic development of a country. Sport is a powerful tool to strengthen social integration, to promote ideals of peace, fraternity, solidarity and justice.
According to the Sport for Development and Peace International Working Group, sport is seen to have the most benefits in:
3.Promotion of gender equality.
5.Peacebuilding and conflict prevention/resolution.
6.Economic development and
7.Communication and social mobilisation.
Sport in Prehistory
Wrestling was depicted in cave paintings in the Lascaux caves in France around 173,000 years ago.
Around 6000 BC Neolithic Rock art was found at the cave of swimmers in Wadi Sura, near Gilf Kebir in Libya showing the evidence of swimming and archery being practiced.
A polished bone implement found at Eva in Tennessee, United States and dated to around 5000 BC has been found as a possible sporting device used in a "ring and pin" game.
Around 2500 BC , The Mayan ballgame of Pitz is believed to be the first ball sport played.
In Egypt, Monuments to the Pharaohs found at Beni Hasan around 2000 BC indicate that a number of sports, including wrestling, long jump, weight lifting, swimming, rowing, ,shooting flying, fishing and athletics, as well as various kinds of ball games were well-developed.
The first Olympic Games was instituted in Greece in 776 BC in Olympia which were celebrated until 393 AD. The prizes for the victors were wreaths of laurel leaves.
Origin Stories of Modern Sports
American Football was existed in the 1800s before Walter Camp, at Yale University, began to help establish rules that made the game appear much as it does today. Football’s evolution primarily took place in college, as college football was far more popular than its professional counterpart until the late 1950's. 26 October 1863 was marked the birth of The Football Association. The first football competition in the world, the FA Cup, was established in 1872.
Baseball was invented by Alexander Cartwright of New York in America in 1845. People in England in 1600’s only played a game called rounders a similar to that of baseball. This sport in popularity was known as America's "national pastime." The first recorded baseball game was held in 1846. In 1871 the first professional baseball league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players was established.
The game of basketball as we know it today was created by Dr. James Naismith who was teaching physical education in December 1891 in Springfield, Massachusetts to condition young athletes during cold months. The first professional league was founded in 1898. In the 1920s and 1930s, Eastern Basketball League (founded in 1909), Metropolitan Basketball League (founded in 1921)and American Basketball League (founded in 1925) were the most important leagues. In 1936 Olympics played in Berlin, Germany, Basketball became an official Olympic sport.
Historical records show that a crude form of the game was played in Egypt 4,000 years ago and in Ethiopia around 1,000BC. The modern game of hockey emerged in England in the mid-18th century. The first Hockey Association was formed in the UK in 1876 and drew up the first formal set of rules. The inaugural Olympic Hockey Competition for men was held in London in 1908. In 1927, the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations (IFWHA) was formed. After celebrating their respective Golden Jubilees - the FIH in 1974 and the IFWHA in 1980 - the two organisations came together in 1982 to form the current FIH. Today, the International Hockey Federation consists of five Continental Associations, 132 National Associations and is still growing.
In 1874, Major Walter C. Wingfield patented in London the equipment and rules for a game very similar to modern tennis. In 1877, the All England Club held the first Wimbledon tournament. By 1882, the specifications had evolved to their current form with rules as per today.
Soccer, widely considered the world’s most popular sport, traces it modern roots in England in the mid-1800s, leading to the creation of the Football Association in London in 1863. The current governing body in international soccer is the Fédération Internationale de Football Association, or FIFA, which was formed in 1904 although the rest of Europe did not take up the game till the mid 1920s.
The game of volleyball, originally called “mintonette,” was invented in 1895 by William G. Morgan. Volleyball is a combination of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball. The USVBA (United States Volleyball Association) was formed in 1928. The first beach volleyball association appeared in California (1965), and the professional players united under the auspices of the AVP (American Volleyball Professionals) in 1983. During the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, American men and women took gold and silver medals in indoor volleyball competitions. Starting in 1996, two-man beach volleyball was officially introduced to the Olympics.
The modern game of golf originated in Scotland in the 15th century. Golf spread globally throughout the 19th century. The Professional Golfers Association of America, today the governing body of golf was formed in 1916. Golf was introduced in Olympics in 1900.
Rugby which is popular is invented by William Web Ellis in 1823 at Rugby School in England. The Rugby Football Union, the sport’s governing body, was formed in London in 1871.
Ice Hockey origin history is traced to Canada as early as the 1810s. The modern sport emerged in the late 1800s in Montreal, with the National Hockey League forming in 1917. Hockey is another sport in which early development took place as much in college as it did in professional leagues.
10,000-year-old rock paintings of people swimming were found in the Cave of Swimmers near Wadi Sura in southwestern Egypt. Competitive swimming in Britain started around 1830. Swimming was part of the first modern Olympic games in 1896 in Athens. In 1908, the world swimming association, Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA), was formed.
Cricket the modern game began to emerge in the 1770s. The first test match was played in 1877 between Australia and England. The International Cricket Council, the governing body of the sport, was founded in 1909, then called the Imperial Cricket Council and consisting only of England, South Africa and Australia. The organization today consists of 10 full members.
The Modern Olympic Games began from the year 1896 and were held in Athens, Greece, the place of birth of Olympics. It was the efforts of French educator Baron Pierre de Coubertin and others that led to the revival of the Olympic event. The Games were successfully held after a gap of four years but it was only on three occasions that the Olympic Games could not be held in the year 1916, 1940 and 1944 the Olympic Games due to the destruction and devastation caused by the 1st and 2nd World Wars. The 2016 Summer Olympics officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad is a major international multi-sport event in the tradition of the Olympic Games due to take place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 5 to 21 August 2016. With 306 sets of medals, the games will feature 28 Olympic sports . More than 10,500 athletes from 206 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) will take part.
The Winter Olympics was created to feature snow and ice sports that were logistically impossible to hold during the Summer Games. Figure skating (in 1908 and 1920) and ice hockey (in 1920) were featured as Olympic events at the Summer Olympics. The Winter Olympics were first held in Chamonix, France, in 1924. The Winter Games were separated from the Summer Games for the first time in 1994. The original games had 9 sports, while the most recent XXII Winter Olympics in 2014 in Sochi, Russia held total of 98 events in 15 winter sport disciplines. The next winter olympics are going to be held in 2018 at PyeongChang, South Korea.
The Paralympic Games is a major international multi-sport event, involving athletes with a range of physical disabilities, including impaired muscle power , leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment. There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games.The first organized athletic day for disabled athletes took place on the day of the opening of the 1948 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom.These games are held almost immediately following the respective Olympic Games. All Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).
Women in Sports
Women's competition in sports has been frowned upon by many societies in the past. In 6th century BC, The Heraean Games were the first recorded sporting competition for women held in Olympia. The 20th century saw major advances in the participation of women in sports, this increase in girls and women’s participation in sport has been partly influenced by the women's rights and feminist movements of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, respectively. In the United States, female students participation in sports was significantly boosted by the Title IX Act in 1972, which forbade gender discrimination in all aspects of any educational environment that uses federal financial aid, leading to increased funding and support to develop female athletes. Pressure from sports funding bodies has also improved gender equality in sports.
The 21st century has seen women’s participation in sport at its all-time highest. Several national women's professional sports leagues such as the FIFA Women's World Cup, Women's Rugby World Cup, and Women's Hockey World Cup have been established and continue to grow.
Education means all round development of personality i.e.physical, mental, aesthetic and spiritual. As children grow, they need balanced development of both the body and the mind especially up to the teens when they spend a major part of the day in school. Sport can no longer be considered a luxury within any society but is rather an important investment in the present and future. The education authorities observed how well the sport served to encourage fine qualities as loyalty,selflessness, cooperation, subordination and deference to the team spirit. Sports became an integral part of the school curriculum and participation is compulsory as it has unique benefits.
Quiz Section !
When did UNESCO described sport and physical education as a “fundamental right for all”? Correct No. Try Again
2001 1975 1978 1904
Which sport in popularity was known as America's "national pastime"? Correct No. Try Again
Baseball Basketball Volleyball Football
In which year did the first Olympic Games was held in Greece? Correct No. Try Again
1908 AD 2500 BC 393 AD 776 BC
Rugby was invented by? Correct No. Try Again
William Web Ellis Alexander Cartwright Dr. James Naismith Major Walter C. Wingfield
When was the All England Club held the first Wimbledon tournament? Correct No. Try Again
1877 1904 1751 1965
Which sport is the combination of basketball, baseball, tennis, and handball? Correct No. Try Again
Football Hockey Rugby Volleyball
The world swimming association, Federation Internationale de Natation (FINA), was formed in? Correct No. Try Again
1896 1908 1830 1986
Who was the person who created Basketball? Correct No. Try Again
Alexander Cartwright William Web Ellis Major Walter C. Wingfield Dr. James Naismith
The first football competition in the world, was established in? Correct No. Try Again
1888 1863 1872 1908
XXXI Olympic Games are going to take place in 2016 at ? Correct No. Try Again